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Sending declined. Incorrect text from the image. Cancel Send. Object Download bibliography description ris BibTeX. Subscribtion state has been changed. Error while changing subscribtion state. Request for access sent successfully. Show content. PLMET: click here to follow the link Title: Uwarunkowania wzrostu gospodarczego Federacji Rosyjskiej Alternative title: Conditionalities of the economic growth in the Russian Federation Creator: Szczerbak, Julianna Ageyeva, Yuliya Subject and Keywords: Russia economic growth conditionalities Rosja wzrost gospodarczy uwarunkowania Abstract: The subject of the paper touches upon the factors determining conditionalities of the economic growth in the Russian Federation.
Subject and keywords: Russia economic growth conditionalities. Studenckie Prace Prawnicze, Administratywistyczne i Ekonomiczne. Studenckie Prace Prawnicze, Administratywistyczne i Ekonomiczne, , 2. Studenckie Prace Prawnicze, Administratywistyczne i Ekonomiczne, , 3. Studenckie Prace Prawnicze, Administratywistyczne i Ekonomiczne, , 4. Leszczycki during the interwar period. These studies established a certain model of tourism.
A con- siderable retardation of tourism research development conducted by Polish ge- ographers is also due to the fact that tourism was formally classified as an exclu- sive discipline.
This led to an erroneous presumption among economists, sociol- ogists etc. Luckily, this period is behind us and socio— economic geographers have started to participate in tourism studies. This has re- sulted in a significant proliferation of this field, and caused geography to partici- pate more dynamically in the study of this peculiar interdisciplinary phenomenon called contemporary tourism.
Due to the constraints of this paper, we must select only a few of the achieve- ments of Polish geographers. Hence, only such research trends are mentioned which have recently led to major achievements and were documented by pub- lications. Traditional geography studies on tourism have been performed for several years, and they have recently been reactivated in an altered form. Contem- porary physical geographers study the natural environment to a lesser extent.
Instead, they seek the type of leisure and health resources nature offers to man. In addition, there are studies which aim at determining the natural rec- reational absorptivity of various geo—complexes. This should forewarn tour- ism organizers of excessive tourist and recreational usage, which could lead to irreversible changes and the devastation of the natural environment. Such new trends are visible in the works of A. Krzymowska-Kostrowicka and M. Pietrzak on the ecology of tourism and leisure, and also in the latest textbook written by K.
A very important research trend is the theoretical concept of tourist space and its subsequent empirical versions. This concept was introduced in the s, but only in the last decade has it become very popular among geogra- phers.
In tourist space considered a to be a functional derivation of the gen- eral geographic space Polish geographers see actual possibilities of creating a methodological concept of interdisciplinary studies on the phenomenon of tourism.
This concept has been presented so far in a few works by S. Liszewski , , Subsequently several empirical studies were carried out and published in a book written by B. Without a doubt the most dynamically developing trend in Poland is religious tourism, which originated in the ancient times. As a result of the energetic activities of the Department of Religious Geography headed by Professor A.
Jackowski studies on religious tourism have reached new heights. They concentrate mainly on pilgrimage tourism in Poland. Despite the relatively short period of scientific activity in this field, several prominent studies have appeared both in terms of methodology and empirical studies.
Of these we ought to mention the collaborative work entitled Religions of the World. Jackowski Global Holy Space. Fundamentals of the Geography of Religion We should emphasize that the research conducted by Polish geographers in this particular tourism sector religious tourism pioneers on a global scale. Studies pertaining to hotel industry constitute a brand new issue in geography research. A hotel or chain of hotels is treated as an element of space develop- ment as well as a causative factor in tourist space arrangement.
An insignifi- cant number of hotel industry studies so far concern the principles and con- cepts of localizing hotel facilities in various spatial scales city, region, coun- try, world. These types of studies also focus on the impact of hotels in cre- ation and organization of geographic space. We should mention in particu- lar a pioneering textbook entitled The Geography of the Hotel Industry by A.
Kowalczyk, a study dedicated to localizing hotels in metropolitan areas in Central and Eastern Europe edited by A. Matczak, , and finally a doc- toral dissertation on the hotel function of former palaces, manors and castles in Poland Rouba, Recently Polish geographers commenced a discussion on the subject of a tour- ist region and its definition.
They also discussed the problem of identifying tourist regions in such a dynamic era of tourism development. The unprece- dented rate of tourism development encompasses regions which are not rec- ognized by geographers as attractive. The results of such theoretical consider- ations and ongoing discussions were published in the journal Tourism vol.
A practical exemplification of geography studies conducted in a specif- ic region is given in a study entitled The Possibilities and Directions of Tourism Development in the Odra River Valley Liszewski This article has presented no more than selected trends of geography studies in tourism or new approaches in the trends mentioned. Nevertheless, the afore- mentioned studies clearly indicate an expansion of the scientific field and the in- clusion of new phenomena and trends appearing in tourism.
Taking into account the fact that a more detailed analysis of the issues presented is impossible at this time, we should indicate a developing trend that deals with the environment—sen- sitive analysis of tourist processes. Thanks to this trend, we are beginning to see more studies pertaining to urban tourism, rural tourism eco—tourism , mountain tourism, and forest tourism.
Will this approach be used extensively in geograph- ic work? Time will tell. The Applicability of Geography Studies to Tourism Tourism is a spatial, economic and social phenomenon, which means that many various sorts of data apply to it. We need to remember that geographic studies in the past have been applied to many branches of our life, and should still be applied in the future Needless to say, development of cognitive tour- ism sightseeing was possible thanks to cartographic work, guides, dictionar- ies etc.
Geographers were less successful during the period of the development of mass tourism. At that time, economic benefits were the priority as opposed to rational utilization, i. To back up this ob- servation I will mention three examples. Two of them relate to bad organiza- tion of geographic space and the third deals with overdevelopment of natural resources. The rapid development of ski tourism and increasing popularity of down- hill skiing caused excessive development and bad spatial organization of certain slopes in the Alps including those of France.
Development of high—level ski re- sorts and the leveling of slopes in order to lay out ski routes resulted in the dev- astation of the natural environment, and moreover in slope degradation. In con- sequence, the slopes deprived of vegetation were susceptible to heavy erosion, es- pecially during the summertime. In both cases the damage was barely reversible over a period of time. In order to satisfy millions of tourists who invade the warm seashores each year, many investors build hotels directly on the beaches.
Several months ago we learned of the consequences of flawed organization of leisure space. The deadly tsunami wave in southeastern Asia caused inconceivable property damage.
Geography Studies on Tourism in Poland and Worldwide 29 The third example concerns a few national parks in Poland, which were es- tablished in good faith to protect their unique natural properties. Ironically, they were advertised as a unique type of tourist attraction, and today millions of tour- ists trample their fragile ground layers.
A visit to the Tatra national park or Slowin- ski national park supports this conclusion. The examples presented above indicate that tourism development is not sole- ly aimed at achieving economic prosperity.
We should strive to maintain tourism development on a level which will not devastate the natural environment. Future generations should be able to admire its beauty. In order to achieve this, the in- tegration of tourism studies must occur, and more importantly, the results ought to be legally sanctioned and practically realized.
This may be a utopian idea, but without a practical solution the consequences could be dire. References Alejziak W. Jackowski A. Thoughts on Terminology], Turyzm 8 1 , pp.
Podstawy geografii religii [Holy Glo- bal Space. Szlaki pielgrzym- kowe [Religions of the World. XV, Wyd. Kaczmarek J. Kowalczyk A. Krzymowska-Kostrowicka A. Liszewski S. Metropolitalny region turystyczno-wypoczynkowy. The Exam- ple of the City of Lodz], Turyzm 15 1—2 , pp. Przyczynek do dys- kusji o przestrzeni geografii [Tourist Space — a Subjective Approach. Matczak A. Miossec J. Oppermann M. Pietrzak M. Rouba R.
Wojciechowska J. Wojciechowski K. Geograficzne uwarunkowania rozwoju urlopowej turystyki wypoczynkowej w Polsce [Geographic Conditions for the Development of a Holiday—Leisure Tourism in Poland]. Unusually, a considerable number of private enterprises and associations have also signed up to support these principles, and it is difficult to find any organisation or individual which or who does not agree with the general concept.
However, one can argue that, despite almost two decades of stated support for the concept and many devel- opment plans and policies calling for or promising the implementation of the concept and countless political speeches claiming delivery of sustainable devel- opment, there is little convincing evidence that sustainable development has made much difference to global tourism, either in terms of the patterns or im- pacts of development.
This paper discusses why such a situation has developed and why there has been so little success in achieving sustainability in tourism. It is argued that a large part of the problem lies in the ambiguity involved in the term itself, and the difficulty of achieving consensus and agreement on implementation.
The paper concludes by proposing some ways in which a greater degree of sustainabil- ity might be achieved in tourism development in destinations. Definitions In the context of tourism, perhaps the greatest difficulty in achieving sus- tainability is that those conceiving the term did not consider tourism in their documented discussions.
There is reference in Our Common Future to na- tional parks and recreation, but not to tourism. This has meant that those wishing to apply the principles of sustainable development to tourism have had to draw their own interpretation of what was really meant by the def- inition noted above and how this could be applied to tourism.
The results have been a combination of imprecision, confusion and ambiguity mixed with a large amount of rhetoric, and the implications have been that the term has many different meanings to the different groups involved in tourism. While this has certain advantages, in particular that many normally disparate view- points can be accommodated, hence the agreement achieved between pub- lic, private and NGO sectors about principles, it also means that when the need arises to implement those principles, the differing interpretations be- come a serious problem.
This author has argued for a long time that there are really two interpreta- tions given to the term sustainable tourism. This author would argue that this definition is what the tourism industry re- ally means by sustainable tourism and the goal which it seeks to achieve, that is, the sustainability or prolongation of tourism and the tourism industry in a specif- ic location.
There is nothing inherently wrong or inappropriate with such a goal, indeed, for the good of the local economy and perhaps the community as a whole, it is may well be the most appropriate objective for tourism in a location, and is probably a goal to which most local residents would subscribe.
The emphasis in the second definition above is on the maintenance of the set- ting in which tourism takes place, both human and ecological, rather than on the maintenance of tourism, as implied in the first definition. A review of the aca- demic and much other literature on tourism development see for example, the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Hall and Lew , Miller , Miller and Twin- ing-Ward , would seem to suggest that the second definition is closer to what most people think the concept should mean.
If these dual and quite differ- ent interpretations of the term are present, they serve to illustrate potential con- fusion and disagreement over how the concept might be implemented or not im- plemented as the case may be. The concept has some basic elements about which there tends to be com- mon agreement.
Agreement would seem to be much easi- er to reach on the first three points above than the third and fourth. Lip-serv- ice may be given to the fourth point, limiting development, as the principle can be accepted but prevented by the argument that such limits have not yet been reached and thus further development is appropriate. It is rare to find equal im- portance being given to all three elements of the triple bottom line.
In most cas- es, priority is almost always given in development, if not in planning, to eco- nomic elements, a position that many residents in tourist destinations appear to support, as they seem willing to accept that tourism brings with it jobs and in- come Snepenger and Johnson These are all too often in short supply in many coastal, remote and insular areas, locations in which tourism is often the only source of development.
Problems with the environment or with social im- pacts are often seen as the price that has to be paid to achieve employment and income, a viewpoint which is not unrealistic when one contemplates the envi- ronmental and social costs paid by residents in many urban centres, especially in western nations, to achieve high standards of living.
Thus trying to achieve the basic principles of sustainable development when applied to tourism is dif- ficult because of the varying interpretations of the term and the trade-offs im- plied in achieving them. Achieving a Balance In many ways moving towards sustainability in tourist destinations is a ques- tion of balancing differing viewpoints about the scale, nature, and rate of devel- opment.
On the one hand there are a number of stakeholders generally favouring continued development, and these most often include entrepreneurs and devel- opers, government agencies, particularly at the regional and national levels, some residents, especially those engaged in tourism, and other stakeholders providing services for tourism such as airlines.
Supporting the expansion of tourism is also the nature of benefits from economies of scale. These become part of a positive feedback loop in the development equation, as larger aircraft, for example, need larger and improved airports, which, to remain viable, need increased passenger numbers, which in turn require additional services and facilities such as accom- modation, which in turn need guaranteed larger visitor numbers.
In general eco- nomic, and sometimes environmental efficiency increases with size, up to certain limits. Theoretically the new Airbus , with its capability of more than pas- sengers, should be much more fuel efficient per passenger than any other plane, and thus improves sustainability, but it does require longer and stronger runways and greater capacity in airport operations.
On the other hand, there will inevitably be stakeholders opposed to the fur- ther growth of tourism. These normally include some residents, often but not always those least involved in tourism, local levels of government, who have to provide many of the essential local services to a seasonally expanded population with little additional income, NGOs which are concerned over specific features of the destination, and sometimes niche tourism operators, who see a limited and often fragile opportunity threatened by large numbers of tourists.
This situation is compounded by the fact that tourism is rarely homogenous and a destination is likely to experience a variety of interests among tourists, with the market be- ing varied in composition and preference.
Thus catering to one single group is rare, and even if the market was homogeneous, all markets are dynamic and thus bound to change over time. This makes identifying limits or carrying capacity extremely difficult. In wil- derness areas where users may have common goals and preferences, setting limits to numbers is much more feasible and defensible, since a high premium is gener- ally put on privacy and solitude and response to excessive numbers relatively easy to identify and manage.
Even in such situations, agencies have become increas- ingly reluctant to accept the concept of carrying capacity, as seen by the change in viewpoint of researchers with the US Forest Service, the agency which has done more to develop the concept of carrying capacity than any other see for example, Lucas , Stankey et al.
If agreement cannot be reached over what are ac- ceptable limits, significant progress towards sustainability in tourism is unlikely to be achieved. Destination Development The pursuance of continued growth can lead to a decline in the quality of the visitor experience and also in the environmental and socio-cultural attributes of a destination.
Such declines can lead directly to a reduction in the overall appeal and hence competitiveness of a destination, leading to a decline in visitation and income generated. This pattern is at the heart of the Tourism Area Life Cycle model Butler , and as Martin and Uysal have argued, it is difficult to separate the stage of development of a destination from the issue of carrying ca- pacity. As destinations are developed, the carrying capacity changes, normally in- creasing until the destination reaches the limit of visitation at which it is capable of providing a satisfactory and sustainable experience for visitors and a satisfacto- ry quality of life for local residents.
Exceeding this level can result in the onset of decline in quality in a number of areas, and lack of competitiveness. Once this lev- el is reached, it is extremely difficult for a destination to be able to fund remedial measures to correct the problems and remain competitive and sustainable.
Many destinations which were developed in an earlier era are now facing this problem. Having been developed to meet a specific market, for example, mass tourists on package holidays in the s and s, they are less suitable to com- pete in a market which has grown more sophisticated in its expectations and de- mands, and less loyal to a specific location.
Improvements in transport and infor- mation technology in particular have meant that tourists can reach anywhere in the world within 24 hours, and distance has become less relevant as a factor in des- tination selection. Over the past half century travel costs have declined, and hol- idays are cheaper in relative, and in some cases in absolute terms than a decade or two decades ago.
Combined with a greater supply of destinations and better trav- el opportunities, the inevitable result has been continued growth in the number of tourists, at both the international and the domestic scales WTO The problem facing many destinations is that having been developed to ca- ter to a specific market, they find themselves having to deal with a market that is changing in terms of its attitudes and preferences.
Thus re- peat visitation declines and destinations have to compete for new visitors contin- uously. This often entails chang- ing the nature of the destination, sometimes gradually, sometimes radically and rapidly. One should not fall into the trap of arguing that all destinations would be ca- pable of being sustainable if they did not change or develop, such logic is faulty and obviously incorrect.
However, one may argue that the further a destination travels from its original inherent appeal, the less likely it is to achieve sustainabil- ity without continued and ever-increasing expenditure in new developments.
If the original attraction was a beach, substituting swimming pools if the water be- comes polluted or overcrowded may be a short term compensatory measure, but there is nothing unique about swimming pools, and fairly soon they will have to be developed further through enlargement and the addition of features such as wave machines and slides, perhaps being converted into a water park, which in turn will be less innovative as time goes on.
The destination then finds itself in competition with newer destinations with state of the art purpose-built water fa- cilities in a location better suited to tap the market for such attractions. To com- pete it has to add additional facilities, often unrelated to any of its inherent at- tributes and soon finds itself with a range of unrelated artificial facilities and no distinguishing element.
There are exceptions to this pattern, and perhaps the most successful is Las Vegas. Here the overriding aim has been to achieve continuous growth, and the town has benefited from a single focus based on a human weakness gambling with the facilities being strongly related to complementing that basic feature.
This, perhaps, provides a guide as to how sustainability might be approached by other more conventional tourist destinations, i. Many destinations develop in response to initial tourist pressures and their development becomes focused on meeting the perceived needs and demands of the market. What is more appropriate would be to concentrate on deciding what the destination is capable and desirous of of- fering and maintaining in the long term at a specific level of quality, and provid- ing this.
In turn this would shape the market that would be attracted to that des- tination, thus while change would have to occur, at the very least through renew- ing and restoring if not replacing outdated facilities, such change could be antic- ipated and accommodated in line with the overall direction decided for the desti- nation.
Such actions would be much more in line with the principles of the long term view, local support and benefits, accommodation within limits, and perhaps following the principles of the triple bottom line. Difficulties of Implementing Sustainable Principles One of the reasons that many places have talked of their commitment to sustainable tourism but failed to demonstrate the implementation of such prin- ciples may stem from the reasons why they have decided to engage in sustain- able tourism.
It was noted above that many destinations that were developed thirty or forty years ago are now facing declines in visitation and income gener- ation. Much of their plant is outdated and the overall appearance and image of such destinations are not appealing compared to more recently developed loca- tions. Such a state of affairs cannot continue if a destination is to remain competitive.
To a destination, catering to a reduced number of guests is al- ways seen as a problem, but if that reduced number spend considerably more per capita, then the income generated can remain constant or even increase, and with smaller numbers, the demand on infrastructure and services may be re- duced. Thus many mature destinations see a move upmarket as being the best route to rejuvenation.
The problem comes when they confuse such a step with a move towards sustainable tourism. It does, perhaps, clearly illustrate the difference be- tween the two definitions of sustainable tourism given earlier. In the first case the emphasis is on sustaining tourism, which is what most of the destinations aim- ing for rejuvenation by moving up market are doing, while the second is about sustaining the destination itself, and by so doing, also sustaining tourism.
In ef- fect, one is about the means, the other is the end. Very few places have taken the second route, yet many have claimed to have done so. This may be partly due to confusion over what sustainable tourism is in terms of the consumers tourists involved. If a destination places its emphasis on a high quality of environment, long term rather than short term gain, and selective not mass tourism, the impli- cation is that it is likely to attract a more discerning audience, one not concerned purely with price, in other words, a more upmarket tourist.
Thus the reverse log- ic is applied, an upmarket tourist must, therefore, be a sustainable tourist, and moving up market is a move towards sustainable tourism. Even announcing that a destination is aiming for sustainability is perceived as likely to result in attract- ing a more upmarket clientele, or at least the attention of tour operators catering to such a market.
Thus few places have resisted the temptation to announce that they are following such a strategy. What they appear to have ignored is the fact that this is, inevitably, a far smaller market than the mass market, and competi- tion is far greater, not the least because it also includes the already established up market destinations currently attracting that market. Converting a declining ma- ture mass destination into an up market sustainable tourist destination is likely to be incredibly difficult, not only because of having to physically change the na- ture and facilities of the destination, but the probably more difficult task of con- verting a negative image into a positive one.
The smaller numbers of true sustain- able tourists are a discerning market segment and not easily convinced that such changes are genuine and appropriately motivated. Developing the Destination: Difficulties in Achieving One that attempted to do this was the municipality of Calvia on Mallorca, in the Bal- earics. As well as legislation and a new tax Ecotax , there were physical chang- es made in resorts, including the demolition of old hotels, improvements in the physical environment and an attempt to meet other aspects of sustainable de- velopment in other areas such as transportation, energy conservation and recy- cling.
The failure of Calvia, gallant at- tempt though it was, demonstrates the need to have support from all stakeholders if real moves towards sustainability are to be achieved Dodds Part of the problem there was the argument that long term community benefits were being paid for by short term individual costs, and there is some truth in this viewpoint.
To change destinations and make long term significant improvements in sustain- able practices costs money and such costs have to be paid in the short term. In many cases it is the present operators and tourists who pay the additional costs, or at least a proportion of them, with few or no appreciable gains.
In the case of tourists this is particularly true. Staying only one or two weeks in a destination is too short a time to profit from what are mostly long term benefits of a move to- wards sustainability.
Difficulties of Achieving Sustainable Tourism The first major difficulty is the fact that sustainable tourism can never be achieved. In the case of tourism, particularly international tour- ism, at least one component, the travel, can rarely be sustainable. While it may be possible to have accommodation and other services in a destination approach a state of sustainability, most forms of transport, even mass public transport, are never truly sustainable, if only because they rely on non-renewable energy.
Thus the best tourism can achieve is a movement towards sustainability, while never fully achieving it. This may appear a matter of semantics, but in fact is part of the problem with implementing something which can never be achieved. Those real- ising this either do not participate in what they realise is a charade, or only speak of moving towards the goal. Given that sustainability is a long term concept, the idea that a destination or country could have achieved this in a year or two is particularly absurd.
More importantly, many places claiming to be practising sustainable tourism have not put into place any means of ascertaining or verifying such claims. The crea- tion of policies alone does not mean anything has been achieved. To be able to claim accurately that there has even been movement towards a state of sustainability de- mands that the destination be able to show change from the way it was being oper- ated to a more sustainable state.
This requires not only measurement of processes such as consumption and pollution before a change in operations, but monitoring of change since then, with clear targets which, once achieved, would demonstrate sustainability in specific sectors. Thus moving towards sustainability means defin- ing what would be a state of sustainability, what improvements are necessary to move towards this, a way of monitoring changes, with clear indicators and targets, and also controls and incentives to correct problems that arise in this process and to enforce compliance with the overall goals.
As Twining-Ward and Miller show, this process has scarcely begun anywhere. Even in a small island state such as Samoa, the identification of suitable indicators and targets is a complicated proc- ess Twining-Ward and Butler and requires a great deal of field work, consul- tation and compromise. Agreement has to be reached on goals and purposes from all stakeholders, along with agreement on procedures for creation and implementa- tion of policy, and acceptance of enforcement and penalties if necessary.
There are very real costs that need to be paid in terms of financial costs, chang- es in methods of operation, shifts in responsibilities, loss or changes in control, and an increase in risk that implementation of such a policy might not result in an improvement in the appeal of the destination to tourists, thus ensuring its long term viability. The industry, despite its apparent approval of sustainable tourism principles, does not appear convinced of what has to be done, especially if one re- sult is a higher price, as a representative of WTO and Federation of Tour Opera- tors noted in the context of the Ecotax in Calvia: It has put off many visitors.
Even a small price rise has a significant effect because for many people the cost of the holiday is more important than where it is Bracken- bury, It does remain uncertain if the majority of tourists really are prepared to pay higher costs and perhaps lose some freedom in terms of activities and procedures in order to allow destinations to move towards sustainability, despite continued assurance by lobby groups and NGOs that this is the case Miller Their image and perhaps their marketability and competitiveness is improved.
However, at a community or des- tination level the situation is different. At this level benefits are not short term but long term, and are not felt directly by individuals or operators.
Community priorities are rarely homogeneous, thus improvements and benefits to one group may be seen as disadvantages and costs to others. As well, in many communities, there may be no specific single group or individual responsible for the multiple elements that are involved in sustainability and achieving consistency in approach and actions may not be feasible. The reasons noted for a failure to achieve goals in Calvia, which probably did more than most places to move towards sustainability, included priority being given to economic criteria over others, ambiguity and uncertainty over what was meant by sustainability, institutional problems, conflicting goals among stake- holders, and inadequate knowledge among participants Dodds While such findings may not be surprising, it is disappointing to find that similar find- ings were made elsewhere, suggesting that this set of reasons are not uncommon in such situations.
Dodds found a similar state of affairs in Malta, and in Korea, Choi concluded that failure to implement sustainable tourism pol- icies there was caused by ambiguity in the meaning of the concept, lack of trust, conflicting goals, and insufficient knowledge among stakeholders.
Choi also concluded that the inherent characteristics of sustainable tourism made col- laboration among stakeholders less likely than in the case of conventional tour- ism. Taken together, these findings do not suggest that achieving sustainability in tourism at the destination level is easy, if even possible. Conclusions The very considerable rhetoric and confident statements from industry and government representatives about the adoption of sustainable tourism principles are considerably devalued by the consistent failure to have such policies imple- mented in the field.
The reasons for the failure to implement often well-stat- ed policies are clear; there are costs involved and a degree of risk or uncertainty, combined with the fact that results take a long time to materialise. This situation is unlikely to change without major change at the global level, and from whence such change might come is not clear.
Thus sustainable tourism is likely to remain an unachieva- ble state. One might argue that there are three ways of looking at this concept, those of idealists who see it as akin to the Holy Grail, something almost magi- cal to be gained.
Unfortu- nately, we often fail to do the sensible thing in a communal situation, and until we do, achieving sustainability in tourism or any other economic activity is go- ing to remain very difficult. References Bastakis C. Tourism Management, — Brackenbury M.
Unpublished statement. World Tourism Organization: Ma- drid. The Canadian Geographer, 5— University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo: 25— Choi B. Barriers to effective collaboration between stakeholders in sustainable tourism. PhD thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford.
Collins Dodds R. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, — Lucas R. Uysal Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9 3 : — McCool S.
Miller G. CABI, Wallingford. Snepenger D. Channelview Publications, Cleve- don: — Stankey G. Ogden, Utah. Twining-Ward L. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10 5 : — Wagar J. The Carrying Capacity of Wildlands for Recreation. Wheeller B. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester: — Wolfe R. The Canadian Geographer, 2 1 : 57— World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Fu- ture. From where! Edward Stachura Nearly a quarter century ago I wrote the following text: Human life means wandering.
Everyone takes a different path and is led by cer- tain signs or lights. Sometimes a person gets lost, then finds his way again and re- turns. Sometimes a person is very tired, seeks shelter, rests, gains strength and con- tinues moving on again. At times a person has to carry a burden; he is fatigued. At the same time he learns many things, he discovers the world. He is very pleased with un- expected encounters. Sometimes a person walks alone, at times people accompany him.
He helps his companions and they help him. He makes new acquaintances; they seem more endur- ing and beautiful depending on how far he travels with them. Only a small group of people takes this path all the way to the top.
Some pause half way. We also find people that fail at some point, but later they manage to get up and stubbornly progress further. Maybe the latter group is the most valuable? Tourism deals mostly with wandering. If I wanted to express briefly its ed- ucational meaning, I would have to repeat what I wrote above. This dissertation was written under the supervision of Pro- fessor Andrzej Matuszyk.
The text quoted above, to my surprise, was used as a motto for this dissertation. Today I have the opportunity to study the afore- mentioned issues more thoroughly. Roaming and traveling have always been my favorite pastimes.
During the last half century I hiked in the Tatra Mountains at least once every year. At first I tried to be a tourist, later, in the s, I commenced the study of tourism as a scientif- ic discipline. Subsequently I traveled a lot, especially in Europe nearly 20 trips to France and Italy. I experienced the beauty of Assisi, and explored Jerusalem and many towns in Israel.
I traveled to Egypt, the US and Canada. The philosophy of tourism is comprised of two principal disciplines: ontolo- gy and ethics. Ontology strives to answer the question: what in fact is tourism? How does it differ from other human activities? The behav- ior of the 3 above—mentioned types of people is analyzed in terms of good and evil. Since tourism primarily involves human behavior, the philosophy of tourism should be treated as a discipline that is a part of human philosophy.
Ontology Is there an analogy between human life the entire course of life, from birth to death and the wandering of a tourist? If indeed such an analogy exists as I strongly believe it does , let us study this process more closely. Man exists in time and space. His time begins when he is born and ends when he dies. His life is comprised of four principal periods: childhood, adolescence, maturity and old age.
Time is not only a physical phenomena. It can be meas- ured in seconds, hours, days, years etc. There are three basic types of space: physical, social and cultural. Physical space is measured in a common unit known as the meter, by its multiplicity and decrease. The meter array is located in Serves a small community near Paris. For us, space is luckily lim- ited in capacity. Social space refers to social groups and individuals in general that we encounter in our lifetime.
Social and cultural space have greatly expanded in the recent decade thanks to cellular telecom. Life is, therefore, wandering through time and space. Sometimes this wandering is unplanned, especially in childhood. In later life under normal conditions wandering becomes conscious and deliberate. In his journey through life man determines goals and selects adequate means mate- rial means, upbringing and education.
The journey features several phases. In our culture we distinguish the following phases: kindergarten, elementary school, high school, college, post graduate, professional career and retirement. During this journey man learns to use signs, which depict the proper path. He tries to comprehend the symbols. He learns from various guides parents, teachers, elder colleagues, priests, books, television and the Internet. Man rarely travels through life alone. Even hermits utilize patterns and expe- riences common to other people.
Man usually travels through life in a smaller or bigger group of people. He meets people and converses with them. He establish- es a dialog. Man is perceived as a dialog being. In order for a dialog to exist, we first need a meeting. Download references. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Lewis, P. The Peasantry. In: Lane, D. Palgrave, London. Publisher Name : Palgrave, London. Print ISBN : Online ISBN : Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search SpringerLink Search. Abstract As a social type the peasant is a country-dweller of low status who supports himself primarily from small-scale agriculture conducted more as a way of life than as a commercial enterprise.
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POLITYKA GOSPODARCZA I SPOECZNA B Winiarski Polityka gospodarcza.Galerie sztuki współczesnej — perspektywa rozwoju czy upadku? – Repository of University of Wroclaw
Winiarski, Polityka gospodarcza, PWN Warszawa , p. Figure 1. Stabilization role of incomes policy. Real sector. Money sector. Assuring equal. Establishing the European Community (Winiarski , p. ). replace.me) Winiarski: Polityka gospodarcza. ed. 3.
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